Continue to explore the redistricting process: delve deeper into the computational geometry of compactness, learn more about legal precedents, or find a redistricting reform organization near you.


  • Altman et al., "Pushbutton Gerrymanders? How Computing Has Changed Redistricting” in Party Lines: Competition, Partisanship, and Congressional Redistricting, Mann and Cain, eds., New York: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

  • Altman, "Is Automation the Answer? – The Computational Complexity of Automated Redistricting,” Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal 23 (1), pp. 81-142, 1997.
  • Chambers & Miller, "A measure of bizarreness," California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences Working Papers 1272, July 2007
  • Polsby & Popper, "The Third Criterion: Compactness as a Procedural Safeguard Against Partisan Gerrymandering,” Yale Law & Policy Review 9, 1991, pp. 301-353.
  • Reock, "A Note: Measuring Compactness as a Matter of Legislative Apportionment," Midwest Journal of Political Science, 5(1), 1961 pp. 70–74.
  • Niemi et al., "Measuring Compactness and the Role of a Compactness Standard in a Test for Partisan and Racial Gerrymandering,” Journal of Politics, 52 (4), 1990, pp. 1155-1179.
  • Young, "Measuring the Compactness of Legislative Districts,” Legislative Studies Quarterly, 13 (1), 1988, pp. 105-115.
  • Barabas & Jerit, "Redistricting Principles and Racial Representation,” State and Politics Quarterly¸4 (4), 2004, pp. 415-435.